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Re: [Xen-devel] [PATCH RFC V9 0/19] Paravirtualized ticket spinlocks

On 06/26/2013 08:09 PM, Chegu Vinod wrote:
On 6/26/2013 6:40 AM, Raghavendra K T wrote:
On 06/26/2013 06:22 PM, Gleb Natapov wrote:
On Wed, Jun 26, 2013 at 01:37:45PM +0200, Andrew Jones wrote:
On Wed, Jun 26, 2013 at 02:15:26PM +0530, Raghavendra K T wrote:
On 06/25/2013 08:20 PM, Andrew Theurer wrote:
On Sun, 2013-06-02 at 00:51 +0530, Raghavendra K T wrote:
This series replaces the existing paravirtualized spinlock mechanism
with a paravirtualized ticketlock mechanism. The series provides
implementation for both Xen and KVM.

Changes in V9:
- Changed spin_threshold to 32k to avoid excess halt exits that are
    causing undercommit degradation (after PLE handler improvement).
- Added  kvm_irq_delivery_to_apic (suggested by Gleb)
- Optimized halt exit path to use PLE handler

V8 of PVspinlock was posted last year. After Avi's suggestions to
at PLE handler's improvements, various optimizations in PLE handling
have been tried.

Sorry for not posting this sooner.  I have tested the v9
patches in 1x and 2x over-commit with 10-vcpu and 20-vcpu VMs.  I
tested these patches with and without PLE, as PLE is still not
with large VMs.

Hi Andrew,

Thanks for testing.

System: x3850X5, 40 cores, 80 threads

1x over-commit with 10-vCPU VMs (8 VMs) all running dbench:
Configuration                Throughput(MB/s)    Notes

3.10-default-ple_on            22945            5% CPU in host
kernel, 2% spin_lock in guests
3.10-default-ple_off            23184            5% CPU in host
kernel, 2% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_on            22895            5% CPU in host
kernel, 2% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_off            23051            5% CPU in host
kernel, 2% spin_lock in guests
[all 1x results look good here]

Yes. The 1x results look too close

2x over-commit with 10-vCPU VMs (16 VMs) all running dbench:
Configuration                Throughput        Notes

3.10-default-ple_on             6287            55% CPU host
kernel, 17% spin_lock in guests
3.10-default-ple_off             1849            2% CPU in host
kernel, 95% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_on             6691            50% CPU in host
kernel, 15% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_off            16464            8% CPU in host
kernel, 33% spin_lock in guests

I see 6.426% improvement with ple_on
and 161.87% improvement with ple_off. I think this is a very good sign
  for the patches

[PLE hinders pv-ticket improvements, but even with PLE off,
  we still off from ideal throughput (somewhere >20000)]

Okay, The ideal throughput you are referring is getting around atleast
80% of 1x throughput for over-commit. Yes we are still far away from

1x over-commit with 20-vCPU VMs (4 VMs) all running dbench:
Configuration                Throughput        Notes

3.10-default-ple_on            22736            6% CPU in host
kernel, 3% spin_lock in guests
3.10-default-ple_off            23377            5% CPU in host
kernel, 3% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_on            22471            6% CPU in host
kernel, 3% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_off            23445            5% CPU in host
kernel, 3% spin_lock in guests
[1x looking fine here]

I see ple_off is little better here.

2x over-commit with 20-vCPU VMs (8 VMs) all running dbench:
Configuration                Throughput        Notes

3.10-default-ple_on             1965            70% CPU in host
kernel, 34% spin_lock in guests
3.10-default-ple_off              226            2% CPU in host
kernel, 94% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_on             1942            70% CPU in host
kernel, 35% spin_lock in guests
3.10-pvticket-ple_off             8003            11% CPU in host
kernel, 70% spin_lock in guests
[quite bad all around, but pv-tickets with PLE off the best so far.
  Still quite a bit off from ideal throughput]

This is again a remarkable improvement (307%).
This motivates me to add a patch to disable ple when pvspinlock is on.
probably we can add a hypercall that disables ple in kvm init patch.
but only problem I see is what if the guests are mixed.

  (i.e one guest has pvspinlock support but other does not. Host
supports pv)

How about reintroducing the idea to create per-kvm ple_gap,ple_window
state. We were headed down that road when considering a dynamic
window at
one point. Then you can just set a single guest's ple_gap to zero,
would lead to PLE being disabled for that guest. We could also revisit
the dynamic window then.

Can be done, but lets understand why ple on is such a big problem. Is it
possible that ple gap and SPIN_THRESHOLD are not tuned properly?

The one obvious reason I see is commit awareness inside the guest. for
under-commit there is no necessity to do PLE, but unfortunately we do.

atleast we return back immediately in case of potential undercommits,
but we still incur vmexit delay.
same applies to SPIN_THRESHOLD. SPIN_THRESHOLD should be ideally more
for undercommit and less for overcommit.

with this patch series SPIN_THRESHOLD is increased to 32k to solely
avoid under-commit regressions but it would have eaten some amount of
overcommit performance.
In summary: excess halt-exit/pl-exit was one  main reason for
undercommit regression. (compared to pl disabled case)

I haven't yet tried these patches...hope to do so sometime soon.

Fwiw...after Raghu's last set of PLE changes that is now in 3.10-rc
kernels...I didn't notice much difference in workload performance
between PLE enabled vs. disabled. This is for under-commit (+pinned)
large guest case.

Hi Vinod,
Thanks for confirming that now ple enabled case is very close to ple

Here is a small sampling of the guest exits collected via kvm ftrace for
an OLTP-like workload which was keeping the guest ~85-90% busy on a 8
socket Westmere-EX box (HT-off).

TIME_IN_GUEST 71.616293

TIME_ON_HOST 7.764597

MSR_READ 0.0003620.0%

NMI_WINDOW 0.0000020.0%



MSR_WRITE 0.0016950.0%


IO_INSTRUCTION 0.0000180.0%

RDPMC 0.0000670.0%

HLT 2.82252336.4%

EXCEPTION_NMI 0.0083620.1%

CR_ACCESS 0.0100270.1%

APIC_ACCESS 1.51830019.6%

[  Don't mean to digress from the topic but in most of my under-commit +
pinned large guest experiments with 3.10 kernels (using 2 or 3 different
workloads) the time spent in halt exits are typically much more than the
time spent in ple exits. Can anything be done to reduce the duration or
avoid those exits ?  ]

I would say, using ple handler in halt exit path patch in this series,
[patch 18 kvm hypervisor: Add directed yield in vcpu block path], help
this. That is an independent patch to tryout.

1. dynamic ple window was one solution for PLE, which we can experiment
further. (at VM level or global).

Is this the case where the dynamic PLE  window starts off at a value
more suitable to reduce exits for under-commit (and pinned) cases and
only when the host OS detects that the degree of under-commit is
shrinking (i.e. moving towards having more vcpus to schedule and hence
getting to be over committed) it adjusts the ple window more suitable to
the over commit case ? or is this some different idea ?

Yes we are discussing about same idea.


The other experiment I was thinking is to extend spinlock to
accommodate vcpuid (Linus has opposed that but may be worth a

2. Andrew Theurer had patch to reduce double runq lock that I will be

I have some older experiments to retry though they did not give
significant improvements before the PLE handler modified.

Andrew, do you have any other details to add (from perf report that
you usually take with these experiments)?

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