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Re: [Xen-devel] [RFC] xen/arm: Handling cache maintenance instructions by set/way

On 07/12/17 18:06, George Dunlap wrote:
> On 12/07/2017 04:58 PM, Marc Zyngier wrote:
>> On 07/12/17 16:44, George Dunlap wrote:
>>> On 12/07/2017 04:04 PM, Julien Grall wrote:
>>>> Hi Jan,
>>>> On 07/12/17 15:45, Jan Beulich wrote:
>>>>>>>> On 07.12.17 at 15:53, <marc.zyngier@xxxxxxx> wrote:
>>>>>> On 07/12/17 13:52, Julien Grall wrote:
>>>>>> There is exactly one case where set/way makes sense, and that's when
>>>>>> you're the only CPU left in the system, your MMU is off, and you're
>>>>>> about to go down.
>>>>> With this and ...
>>>>>> On top of bypassing the coherency, S/W CMOs do not prevent lines from
>>>>>> migrating from one CPU to another. So you could happily be flushing by
>>>>>> S/W, and still end up with dirty lines in your cache. Success!
>>>>> ... this I wonder what value emulating those insns then has in the first
>>>>> place. Can't you as well simply skip and ignore them, with the same
>>>>> (bad) result?
>>>> The result will be much much worst. Here a concrete example with a Linux
>>>> Arm 32-bit:
>>>>     1) Cache enabled
>>>>     2) Decompress
>>>>     3) Nuke cache (S/W)
>>>>     4) Cache off
>>>>     5) Access new kernel
>>>> If you skip #3, the decompress data may not have reached the memory, so
>>>> you would access stall data.
>>>> This would effectively mean we don't support Linux Arm 32-bit.
>>> So Marc said that #3 "doesn't make sense", since although it might be
>>> the only cpu on in the system, you're not "about to go down"; but Linux
>>> 32-bit is doing that anyway.
>> "Doesn't make sense" on an ARMv7+ with SMP. That code dates back to
>> ARMv4, and has been left untouched ever since. "If it ain't broke..."
>>> It sounds like from the slides the purpose of #3 might be to get stuff
>>> out of the D-cache into the I-cache.  But why is the cache turned off?
>> Linux mandates that the kernel in entered with the MMU off. Which has
>> the effect of disabling the caches too (VIVT caches and all that jazz).
>>> And why doesn't Linux use the VA-based flushes rather than the S/W flushes?
>> Linux/arm64 does. Changing the 32bit port to use VA CMOs would probably
>> break stuff from the late 90s, so that's not going to happen. These
>> days, I tend to pick my battles... ;-)
> OK, so let me try to state this "forwards" for those of us not familiar
> with the situation:
> 1. Linux expects to start in 'linear' mode, with the MMU disabled.
> 2. On ARM, disabling the MMU disables caching (!).  But disabling
> caching doesn't flush the cache; it just means the cache is bypassed (!).
> 3. Which means for Linux on ARM, after unzipping the kernel image, you
> need to flush the cache before disabling the MMU and starting Linux proper
> 4. For historical reasons, 32-bit ARM Linux uses the S/W instructions to
> flush the cache.  This still works on 32-bit hardware, and so the Linux
> maintainers are loathe to change it, even though more reliable VA-based
> instructions are available (?).

It also works on 64bit HW. It is just not easily virtualizable, which is
why we've removed all S/W from the 64bit Linux port a while ago.

> 5. For 64-bit hardware, the S/W instructions don't affect the L3 cache
> [1] (?!).  So a 32-bit guest on a 64-bit host the above is entirely broken.

System caches in general can avoid implementing S/W. That's not specific
to 64bit. It is just that in general, 32bit systems do not have a very
deep cache hierarchy (there are of course a number of exceptions to this
rule). 64bit systems, on the other hand, can be much bigger and are
quite happily stacking a deep cache hierarchy.

> 6. Rather than fix this in Linux, KVM has added a work-around in which
> the *hypervisor* flushes the caches at certain points (!!!).  Julien is
> looking into doing the same with Xen.

The "at certain points" doesn't quite describe it. We fully emulate S/W
instruction using the biggest hammer we can find.

> Is that about right?

I think you got the gist of it.

> Given the variety of hardware that Linux has to run on, it's hard to
> understand why 1) 32-bit ARM Linux couldn't detect if it would be
> appropriate to use VA-based instructions rather than S/W instructions 2)
> There couldn't at least be a Kconfig option to use VA instructions
> instead of S/W instructions.

[Linux hat on]

1) There is hardly anything to detect. Both sets of CMOs are available
on a moderately recent implementation. What you'd want to detect is the
the kernel is "virtualizable", which is not an easy task.

2) Kconfig options are the way to hell. It took us 5 years to get a
32bit kernel that would boot on about anything, and we're not going to
go back.

An alternative option would be to switch to VA CMOs if compiled for
ARMv7 (and maybe v6), assuming that doesn't have any horrible side
effect with broken cache implementations (and there is a few out there).
You'll have to check that this doesn't regress on any existing HW.

Of course, none of that will solve the most important issue, which is to
boot an unmodified kernel from yesterday to install a distribution. If
you want to be able to do that, you'll have to use the aforementioned

In the end, it really depends how much you care about 32bit Linux guests
(on both 32 and 64bit Xen), and what your user base expects as a level
of support.


Jazz is not dead. It just smells funny...

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